Research

ICRAC Publications

Sharkey, Noel (2018). Guidelines for the human control of weapons systems, ICRAC Working Paper Series #3 (CCW GGE April 2018), International Committee for Robot Arms Control, PDF

Altmann, J./Gubrud, M. (2013). Compliance Measures for an Autonomous Weapons Convention, ICRAC Working Paper Series #2, International Committee for Robot Arms Control, PDF

Bolton, M./Zwijnenburg, W. (2013). Futureproofing Is Never Complete: Ensuring the Arms Trade Treaty Keeps Pace with New Weapons Technology, ICRAC Working Paper Series #1, International Committee for Robot Arms Control, PDF

 

ICRAC Braille Translations*

 

Asaro, P. (2016). Jus nascendi: Robotic Weapons and the Martens Clause. In R. Calo, M. Froomkin, & I. Kerr (Eds.), ?*Robot Law* (pp. 367–386). Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. (The original article is available at Peter Asaro’s website)

Altmann, Jürgen/Asaro, Peter/Sharkey, Noel et al. (2013): Armed military robots: editorial, in: Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2): 73-76.

Asaro, P. (2012): On Banning Autonomous Lethal Systems: Human Rights, Automation and the Dehumanizing of Lethal Decision-making, in: International Review of the Red Cross 94 (886) Special Issue on New Technologies and Warfare, 687–709.? (The original article is available the ICRC website)

Sauer, Frank 2016: Stopping ‘Killer Robots’: Why Now Is the Time to Ban Autonomous Weapons Systems, in: Arms Control Today 46 (8): 8-13. (The final publication is available at link.springer.com)

ICRAC Mission Statements

ICRAC 2015: Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems: Ten Problems For Global Security (Leaflet)

Reflections on the 2016 CCW Review Conference

ICRAC second statement on security to the 2016 UN CCW Expert Meeting

ICRAC statement on security to the 2016 UN CCW Expert Meeting

ICRAC opening statement to the 2016 UN CCW Expert Meeting

Speed kills! Why we need to hit the brakes on “killer robots”

ICRAC at the 2016 UN CCW informal experts meeting on LAWS

ICRAC and the responsible robotics revolution

Icelandic research institute shuns autonomous weapons

ICRAC closing statement to the 2015 UN CCW Expert Meeting

ICRAC second statement on Overarching Issues, 2015 CCW Expert Meeting

ICRAC statement on Overarching issues, 2015 CCW Expert Meeting

ICRAC’s statement on Challenges to IHL due to increasing degrees of autonomy

ICRAC opening statement to the 2015 UN CCW Expert Meeting

Model United Nations Urges Ban on Killer Robots

Our robotic future: The hopes and worries of 10 year old Bethany

*Braille translations by Don Winiecki, Ed.D., Ph.D., Professor of Ethics & Morality in Professional Practice, Boise State University, USA. Thank you!

Braille transcriptions provided here follow Unified English Braille (UEB) as specified by the International Council on English Braille (ICEB). You can download “The Rules of Unified English Braille” in either braille or print format from the following URL: http://www.iceb.org/ueb.html The transcriptions are saved as Duxbury BRF files (also called a `Web-braille` format). After downloading or accessing these files online, you can open them for reading directly on a refreshable braille display. If you attempt to open these BRF files using a wordprocessor or text editor, you will see characters that will not be human-readable unless you know how to decode the BRF format manually. If you experience any problems accessing and reading these files, or if you would like to have the files saved in another format, please contact Don Winiecki at dwiniecki@boisestate.edu.

Publications by ICRAC Members

 

Akerson, David

Akerson, D. (forthcoming) The Law of Armed Conflict and the Changing Technology of War.

Akerson, D. Prosecuting Mass Crimes: A Compendium of Lessons Learned and Suggested Practices, a three-year study of prosecutorial practices at the International Tribunals for Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, Sierra Leone, Cambodia and Lebanon. The 300-page study is available on the International Association of Prosecutors website.

Akerson, D. Contempt of Court At The International Tribunals.

Akerson, D. (2014) “Applying Jus in Bello(/i> Proportionality to Drone Warfare.“ In 16 University of Oregon Review of International Law.

Akerson, D. (2012) “The Illegality of Fully Autonomous Lethal Drones.” In The Law of Armed Conflict and the Changing Technology of War. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Altmann, Jürgen

Altmann, J. (2001). Military Uses of Microsystem Technologies – Dangers and Preventive Arms Control, Münster: agenda.

Altmann, J., Gubrud, M. (2002) Risks from Military Uses of Nanotechnology – The Need for Technology Assessment and Preventive Control, in M. Roco and R. Tomellini (eds.) Nanotechnology: Revolutionary Opportunities and Societal Implications, Luxembourg: European Communities, 2002, PDF

Altmann, J., Gubrud, M. (2004) Anticipating Military Nanotechnology, IEEE Technology & Society, 23 (4), 33-40.

Altmann, J. (2006). Military Nanotechnology: Potential Applications and Preventive Arms Control, Abingdon/New York: Routledge.

Altmann, J. (2009). Preventive Arms Control for Uninhabited Military Vehicles, in R. Capurro, M. Nagenborg (eds.), Ethics and Robotics, Heidelberg: AKA, 2009. PDF

Altmann, J. (2011). Unbemannte Kampffahrzeuge und internationale Begrenzungen (Unmanned Combat Vehicles and International Limits), Humanitäres Völkerrecht – Informationsschriften, 24 (2), 116-119.

Altmann, J. (2013). Arms Control for Armed Uninhabited Vehicles – An Ethical Issue, Ethics and Information Technology, 15 (2), 137-152, DOI 10.1007/s10676-013-9314-5. PDF

Altmann, J. (2013). Unbemannte bewaffnete Systeme – Trends, Gefahren und präventive Rüstungskontrolle (Unmanned Armed Systems – Trends, Dangers and Arms Control), in DSF, Unbemannte bewaffnete Systeme: Verändert der rüstungstechnologische Wandel den Umgang mit Konflikten? Eine friedenspolitische Perspektive, DSF Arbeitspapiere 9, Osnabrück: Deutsche Stiftung Friedensforschung. PDF

Altmann, J./Sauer, F. (2016). Speed Kills: Why we Need to Hit the Brakes on “Killer Robots”, in: http://duckofminerva.com.

Altmann, J./Sauer, F. (2017). Autonomous Weapon Systems and Strategic Stability, in: Survival 59 (5): 117-142.

Amoroso, Daniele

Amoroso, D., and Tamburrini, G. (2017). “The Ethical and Legal Case Against Autonomy in Weapons Systems,” Global Jurist, (on-line)

Amoroso, D., and Tamburrini, G. (2017). I pericoli dei killer robot, Scienzainrete (on-line)

Amoroso, D. (2017). “Jus in bello and jus ad bellum Arguments Against Autonomy in Weapons Systems: A Re-appraisal,” Questions of International Law, Zoom-in 43: 5-31. PDF

Asaro, Peter

Asaro, P. (2017) “Moral and Ethical Perspectives,” in Ray Acheson, Matthew Bolton and Elizabeth Minor (eds.) The Humanitarian Impact of Drones, Reaching Critical Will, pp. 141-149.

Asaro, P. (2016). “Jus nascendi , Robotic Weapons and the Martens Clause,” in Ryan Calo, Michael Froomkin and Ian Kerr (eds.) Robot Law, Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 367–386 ( Braille translation by Don Winiecki).

Asaro, P. (2016) “‘Hands Up, Don’t Shoot!’ HRI and the Automation of Police Use of Force,” Special Issue on Robotics Law and Policy, Journal of Human-Robot Interaction, Vol 5, No 3 (2016): pp. 55-69.

Asaro, P. (2015) “Roberto Cordeschi on Cybernetics and Autonomous Weapons: Reflections and Responses,” Paradigmi: Rivista di critica filosofica, Anno XXXIII, no. 3, Settembre-Dicembre, 2015, pp. 83-107.

Asaro, P. (2014). “Ethical Perspectives on Autonomous Weapons Systems,” in Autonomous Weapons Systems: Technical, Military, Legal and Humanitarian Aspects, International Committee of the Red Cross Summary Report of Expert Meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, March 26-28, 2014, pp. 49-52.

Asaro, P. (2014). “Droits de l’homme, automatisation et déshumanisation des prises de décisions létales : les systèmes d’armement autonomes doivent-ils être interdits?, Revue Internationale de la Croix-Rouge,Volume 94, Sélection française 2012/2, pp. 489-517.

Asaro, P. (2014). “Determinism, Machine Agency and Responsibility,” Special Issue on Investigating the Relationship between Future Technologies, Self & Society, Alberto Pirni and Antonio Carnevale (eds.), Politica & Società, 2, May-August, 2014, pp. 265-292.

Richard, Claire and P. Asaro (2014) “Can Drones Have Ethics?,” Public Books, July 1, 2014.

Asaro, P. (2014). “Ethical Perspectives on Autonomous Weapons Systems,” in Autonomous Weapons Systems: Technical, Military, Legal and Humanitarian Aspects, International Committee of the Red Cross Summary Report of Expert Meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, March 26-28, 2014, pp. 49-52.

Asaro, P. (2013). “Punishment, Reinforcement Learning and Machine Agency,” Cosmopolis. IX (2/2013).

Altmann, Juergen, Peter Asaro, Noel Sharkey, and Robert Sparrow (2013). “Armed Military Robots: Editorial,” Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2), June 2013, pp. 73-76.

Asaro, P. (2013). “The Labor of Surveillance and Bureaucratized Killing: New Subjectivities of Military Drone Operators,” Special Issue on Charting, Tracking, Mapping: Technology, Labor, and Surveillance, Gretchen Soderlund (ed.), Social Semiotics, 23 (2), pp. 196-224.

Asaro, P. (2013). “À quel point une guerre de robot peut-elle être juste?,” in Sébastien Mazoyer, Jérôme de Lespinois, Emmanuel Goffi, Grégory Boutherin, and Christophe Pajon (eds.), Les drones aériens: passé, présent et avenir. Approche globale. Paris, France: La Documentation française, Collection Stratégie aérospatiale, pp. 613-631. (Translated into French by Emmanuel Goffi).

Asaro, P. (2012). “On Banning Autonomous Lethal Systems: Human Rights, Automation and the Dehumanizing of Lethal Decision-making,” Special Issue on New Technologies and Warfare, International Review of the Red Cross, 94 (886), Summer 2012, pp. 687-709 ( Braille translation by Don Winiecki, French Translation). PDF

Asaro, P. (2009). “Modeling the Moral User: Designing Ethical Interfaces for Tele-Operation,” IEEE Technology & Society, 28 (1), 20-24. PDF

Asaro, P. (2008). “ How Just Could a Robot War Be?” in Adam Briggle, Katinka Waelbers and Philip A. E. Brey (eds.), Current Issues in Computing And Philosophy, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, pp. 50-64. PDF

Bolton, Matthew

Bolton, M. (2013). US must impose moratorium and seek global ban on killer robots. The Hill.

Bolton, M./Nash, T./Moyes, R. (2012). Ban autonomous armed robots. Article 36.

Chengeta, Thompson

Chengeta, Thompson, International Law and Autonomous Weapon Systems (Forthcoming, Pretoria University Law Press, 2018).

Chengeta, Thompson et al., ‘The Right to Life and the International Law Framework Regulating the Use of Armed Drones’ (2016) Vol 65 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 791 – 827. [pdf]

Chengeta, Thompson, ‘Defining Meaningful Human Control in Autonomous Weapon Systems’ (2017) Vol 32 NYU Journal of International Law and Politics [pdf]

Chengeta, Thompson, ‘Measuring Autonomous Weapon Systems against International Humanitarian Law Rules’ (2016) Vol 5 Journal of Law and Cyber warfare Issue 1. [pdf]

Chengeta, Thompson, ‘Accountability Gap, Autonomous Weapon Systems and Modes of Responsibility in International Law’ (2016) Vol 45 Denver Journal of International Law Number 1, Fall 2016. [pdf]

Chengeta, Thompson, ‘Dignity and Autonomous Weapon Systems Debate: An African Perspective’ (2016) Vol 13, Brazilian Journal of International law Number 2. [pdf]

Chengeta, Thompson, ‘Can Robocop ‘Serve and Protect’ within the Confines of Law Enforcement Rules?’ (2016) Vol 18 Pace International Law Review 57 – 132. [pdf]

Chengeta, Thompson, ‘Are Autonomous Weapon Systems the subject of Article 36 of Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions?’ (2016) Vol 23 UC Davis Journal of International Law and Policy Number 1.[pdf]

Moyes, Richard

Bolton, M./Nash, T./Moyes, R. (2012). Ban autonomous armed robots. Article 36.

Sauer, Frank

Sauer, F./Schörnig, N. (2012). Killer Drones – The Silver Bullet of Democratic Warfare? Security Dialogue 43:4, 363-380.

Sauer, F. (2014). Autonomous Weapons Systems – Humanising or Dehumanising Warfare? Global Governance Spotlight 4|2014. German Development and Peace Foundation. Bonn. PDF

Sauer, F. (2016). Stopping ‘Killer Robots’: Why Now Is the Time to Ban Autonomous Weapons Systems, in: Arms Control Today 46:8, 8-13.

Altmann, J./Sauer, F. (2016). Speed Kills: Why we Need to Hit the Brakes on “Killer Robots”, in: http://duckofminerva.com.

Altmann, J./Sauer, F. (2017). Autonomous Weapon Systems and Strategic Stability, in: Survival 59 (5): 117-142.

Schwarz, Elke

Schwarz, E. (forthcoming) Death Machines: The Ethics of Violent Technologies (Manchester University Press, 2018) (forthcoming).

Schwarz, E. (2017) ‘Hybridity and Humility: What of the Human in Posthuman Security?’, in `Eroukhmanoff, C. and Harker, M. (eds) Reflections on the Posthuman in International Relations: The Anthropocene, Security and Ecology (2017).

Schwarz, E. (2017) ‘Pursuing Peace: The strategic limits of drone warfare’. An INS special forum: intelligence and drones. Intelligence and National Security 32:4 (2017), pp. 422-425.

Schwarz, E. (2016) ‘Prescription drones: On the techno-biopolitical regime of contemporary ethical killing’. Security Dialogue, 47:1 (2016), pp. 59-75.

Sharkey, Noel

Sharkey, N. (2017) Why robots should never be delegated with the decision to kill, Connection Science, Special Issue on Ethical Principles of Robotics, 29 Issue 2, 177-186.

Sharkey, N. (2016) Policing with Robots, Open Rights Group (Ed) 10×10: Digital rights, the next decade.

Sharkey, N. (2016) Staying in the Loop: human supervisory control of weapons, in Bhuta Nehal and Hin Yan Lui (eds), Autonomous Weapons Systems and the Law, Cambridge University Press.

Sharkey, N. (2016) Are we prepared for more killer police robots? Guardian, July 12.

Sharkey, N. (2015) Autonomous Weaponized Robots, Wall Street Journal, December 10.

Sharkey, N. (2014) Autonomous Weapons and Human Supervisory Control, International Committee of the Red Cross report on Autonomous Weapons Systems, March 2014.

Sharkey, N. (2014) The future of drone warfare, in Doare, Danet, Hanon and Boisboissel (Eds) Robots on the battlefield, Fort Levenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute press.

Sharkey, N. (2014) Politica & Società, Towards a principle for the human supervisory control of robot weapons, special issues on Investigating the Relationship between Future Technologies, Self and Society. number 2, May-August).

Sharkey, N. and Brehm, M. (2014) Losing control of our humanity, Peace in Progress, February 19.

Sharkey, N. (2013) The proliferation of drone technology, autonomy and military necessity, in Sébastien Mazoyer, Jérôme de Lespinois, Emmanuel Goffi, Grégory Boutherin, Christophe Pajon (eds) Les drones aériens: passé, présent et avenir. Approche globale. Préface du général d’armée aérienne Denis Mercier, chef d’état-major de l’armée de l’air. Paris : La Documentation française, Collection Stratégie aérospatiale, juin 2013, pp 599-612

Sharkey, N. (2013) Prohibiting autonomous lethal robots, In P. Aarne Vesilind (Ed) Peace Engineering 2nd Edition, Woodville, NH: Lakeshore press, 139-147

Sharkey, N. (2013) Drones and the threat of autonomous weapons, New World Magazine, 19 April

Sharkey, N. (2013) Say no to killer robots, The Engineer, March 11

Sharkey, N. and Suchman, Lucy (2013) Wishful mnemonics and autonomous killing machines, AISB Quarterly, 14-22

Sharkey, N. (2013) Drones and the threat of autonomous weapons, New World Magazine, 19 April

Sharkey (2013) Ban the killer robots before it is too late, CNN International, April

Sharkey, N. (2012) The proliferation of robot technology, autonomy and legal prohibition. Proceeding of the Conference on Robots and the Law, Center for Interdisziplinary Studies in Bielefeld (ZiF), Germany, 6th to 9th of May, 2012

Sharkey, N. (2012) Autonomous robots and the automation of warfare, International Humanitarian Law Magazine, Issue 2, December 2012

Sharkey, N. (2012) Americas’s mindless killer robots must be stopped, Guardian, December 3

Sharkey, N. (2012) Drone race will ultimately lead to a sanitised factory of slaughter, Saturday Guardian 4 August (reprinted in The Hindu and The Gulf Times)

Sharkey, N. (2012). Drone Proliferation and the Protection of Civilians. In G.L. BERUTO, ed. International Humanitarian Law and New Weapon Technologies. Milan: FrancoAngeli 108-118

Sharkey, N. (2012) L’avenir de las guerre par drones interposes, in La guerre robotisee, Didier, Jean-Paul Hanon, Gerard de Boisboissel (Eds), Paris: Economica, 133-147

Sharkey, N. (2012) Drone race will ultimately lead to a sanitised factory of slaughter, Saturday Guardian 4 August (reprinted in The Hindu and The Gulf Times)

Sharkey, N. (2012). Automating Warfare: lessons learned from the drones, Journal of Law, Information & Science, 21(2)

Sharkey, N. (2012). Killing made easy: from joystics to politics, in Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics, eds. Patrick Lin, George Bekey, and Keith Abney, Cambridge: MIT Press.

Sharkey, N. (2012). The evitability of autonomous robot warfare, International Review of the Red Cross, 94, 787-799.

Sharkey, N. (2011). Processus décisionnels : vers des réponses automatisées aux questions de vie ou de mort, In Ronan Doare and Henri Hude (ed) Les Robots Au Coeur Du Champ De Bataille, 49-67.

Sharkey, N. (2011). The automation and proliferation of military drones and the protection of civilians, Journal of Law, Innovation and Technology, 3(2) 229–240.

Sharkey, N. (2010). Saying “No!” to Lethal Autonomous Targeting, Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 9, No. 4, 299-313. PDF (paywall)

Sharkey, N. (2009) March of the Killer Robots, Daily Telegraph, 15th June.

Sharkey, N. (2009). A matter of precision, Defence Management Journal, December, 74-76.

Sharkey, N. (2009). Death Strikes from the Sky: The calculus of proportionality, IEEE Technology and Society,28, 16-19. PDF (paywall)

Sharkey, N. (2009). Weapons of indiscriminate lethality, FIfF Kommunikation, 1/09, 26-28. PDF

Sharkey, N. (2008) Grand Challenge: Children on the front line of weapons development, Guardian, 27 August,

Sharkey, N. (2008) Death by Robot, Industrial Focus: The European journal of manufacturing, Magazine distributed by the Guardian, p62-65, May/June,

Sharkey, N. (2008). The Ethical Frontiers of Robotics. Science, 32 (5909), 1800-1801.

Sharkey, N. (2008). Grounds for Discrimination: Autonomous Robot Weapons. RUSI Defence Systems, 11 (2), 86-89. PDF

Sharkey, N. (2008) The grim reality of robots at war, Scientists for Global Responsibility, Winter, 2008

Sharkey, N. (2008). Cassandra or False Prophet of Doom: AI Robots and War. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 23 (4), 14-17. PDF (paywall)

Sharkey, N. (2007). Automated Killers and the Computing Profession. Computer, 40 (11), 122-124. PDF (paywall)

Sparrow, Robert

Sparrow, R. (2007). Killer Robots, Journal of Applied Philosophy, 24 (1): 62-77. PDF

Sparrow, R. (2009). Predators or Plowshares? Arms Control of Robotic Weapons, IEEE Technology and Society, 28 (1): 25-29. PDF

Sparrow, R. (2009). Building a Better WarBot: Ethical issues in the design of unmanned systems for military applications, Science and Engineering Ethics, 15 (2), 169–187. PDF (paywall)

Sparrow, R. (2016). Robots and respect: Assessing the case against Autonomous Weapon Systems. Ethics and International Affairs 30 (1), 93-116. doi:10.1017/S0892679415000647.

Tamburrini, Guglielmo

Amoroso, D., and Tamburrini, G. (2017). “The Ethical and Legal Case Against Autonomy in Weapons Systems,” Global Jurist, (on-line)

Amoroso, D., and Tamburrini, G. (2017). I pericoli dei killer robot, Scienzainrete (on-line)

Weber, Jutta

Weber, J. (2009). Robotic Warfare, Human Rights and the Rhetoric of Ethical Machines, in Capurro/Nagenborg.