Frank Sauer

Position: Senior Researcher at Bundeswehr University Munich – ICRAC IT Secretary

Links: Website | Twitter

Expertise Areas:  International Security, Arms Control & Disarmament



Dr. phil. Frank Sauer is a Senior Researcher at Bundeswehr University in Munich. Frank Sauer’s work is focused on international security. He has done research on nuclear issues, terrorism, cyber security as well as the military application of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics. He is not only a member of ICRAC but also serves on the International Panel on the Regulation of Autonomous Weapons (iPRAW).


Sauer, Frank 2021: Stepping back from the brink: Why multilateral regulation of autonomy in weapons systems is difficult, yet imperative and feasible, in: International Review of the Red Cross, doi: 10.1017/S1816383120000466.

Rosert, Elvira/Sauer, Frank 2021: How (not) to stop the killer robots: A comparative analysis of humanitarian disarmament campaign strategies, in: Contemporary Security Policy 42 (1): 4-29.

Hansen, Aaron/Sauer, Frank 2019: Autonomie in Waffensystemen: Chancen und Risiken für die US-Sicherheitspolitik [Autonomy in Weapon Systems: Opportunities and Risks for US Security Policy], in: Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik 12 (2), 213-235.

Rosert, Elvira/Sauer, Frank 2019: Prohibiting Autonomous Weapons: Put Human Dignity First, in: Global Policy 10 (3), 370-375.

Sauer, Frank 2019: “Military applications of artificial intelligence: Nuclear risk redux“, in: Boulanin, Vincent (Ed.): The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Strategic Stability and Nuclear Risk, Volume I, Euro-Atlantic Perspectives, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), 84-90.

Amoroso, Daniele/Sauer, Frank/Sharkey, Noel/Suchman, Lucy/Tamburrini, Guglielmo 2018: Autonomy in Weapon Systems: The Military Application of Artificial Intelligence as a Litmus Test for Germany’s New Foreign and Security Policy. Volume 49 of the Publication Series on Democracy. Heinrich Böll Foundation, Berlin.

Sauer, Frank 2018: “Artificial Intelligence in the Armed Forces: On the need for regulation regarding autonomy in weapon systems“, German Federal Academy for Security Policy Working Paper Series No. 26, Berlin.

Sauer, Frank 2018: In Banning Autonomous Weapons, Europe Must Take the Lead, Europe’s World, Friends of Europe, Brussels.

Altmann, Jürgen/Sauer, Frank 2017: “Autonomous Weapon Systems and Strategic Stability“, Survival 59 (5), 117-142.

Sauer, Frank 2014: “Autonomous Weapons Systems – Humanising or Dehumanising Warfare?” Global Governance Spotlight 4. Stiftung Entwicklung und Frieden, Bonn.

Sauer, Frank/Schörnig, Niklas 2012: “Killer Drones – The Silver Bullet of Democratic Warfare?Security Dialogue 43 (4), 363-380.

For a full list of Frank Sauer’s publications, click here.

Frank Sauer in the Media (in German language):

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